Frederik Tegeder © Copyright: IWM


Frederik Tegeder

Research group Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics


+49 241 80 99542


  Binder Jetting Copyright: © IWM

Processing of carbide-rich tool steels by metal binder jetting


Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are becoming increasingly widespread in various industries, including toolmaking. AM offers a high degree of geometric freedom, integration of functional elements and, with correctly selected process parameters, post-processing is no longer necessary. So far, different materials, with the various beam-based processes (e.g. laser melting PBF-LB), have been successfully manufactured additively. Tool steels containing carbides can only be partially manufactured with beam-based processes, as the high thermal stress leads to cracks. In Metal Binder Jetting (MBJ), metal powder is locally bonded layer by layer with a binder to form a green part. The green parts are then sintered and cooled in a controlled manner. Residual stresses are reduced and cracks are avoided. This makes the process a promising alternative to beam-based additive manufacturing processes when it comes to the production of carbide-rich tool steels.

The aim of the project is to develop a process chain for the reliable processing of carbide-rich tool steels using MBJ, as well as to investigate the mechanical properties and compare them with the properties of conventionally produced test specimens.


  • Determination of specimen geometries for test specimens and subsequent printing of the green parts.
  • Sintering and post-treatment of the green parts. Example post-treatments include hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and polishing of specimens.
  • Mechanical characterization and analysis of the fracture surface. Mechanical characterization is performed under quasi-static and under oscillatory loading.
  • Industrial application testing of demonstrators.
  Carbide structure 1.3345 Copyright: © IWM

Project partners

  • Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM.
  • Bleistahl Prod.-GmbH &Co. KG, Botek Präzisions-Bohrtechnik GmbH, Coperion GmbH, Cremer Thermo-Prozessanlagen GmbH, Deutsche Edelstahlwerke Specialty Steel GmbH & Co. KG, ExOne GmbH, GKN Sinter Metals Engineering GmbH, HILTI AG, Krämer Engineering GmbH, Quintus Technologies AB, Reifenhäuser Reiloy GmbH, Siegener Werkzeug- und Härtetechnik GmbH, SMS Group GmbH
  BMWK Copyright: © BWMK

Funding information

Forschungsgesellschaft Stahlverformung e. V. – FSV

IGF-Vorhaben-Nr.: 22507 N

Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen – AiF

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Klimaschutz